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It is intended to give guidance for designers concerned with industrial buildings, plant and installations, including refineries. The start and finish of text introduced or altered by Amendment No. This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract.
Users are responsible for its correct application. Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i and ii, pages 1 to 19 and a back cover. The BSI copyright displayed in this document indicates when the document was last issued.
The design characteristics should be uniform in any given installation. Table 1 — Factors affecting choice of means of access or escape Factor to be considered Remarks Height of building or storey height Height governs number of flights see 5.
Where loads are being carried regularly, stairs should be used rather than ladders Number of people The number of people governs the size and the loading see 8. Where two or more materials are used, they should be compatible, e. The maximum number of risers in a single flight should be 16, for straight stairs, or 22, for helical and spiral stairs. Landings at the head of a stair should be designed so that it is not possible to step from a platform or walkway onto the stair without a change in direction.
Typical industrial stairs are shown in Figure 2. The relationship between rise and going for a stair should not change along the walking line, subject to the same tolerances.
The maximum permissible deviation for any size should not exceed the appropriate value given in Table 2 of BS For further guidance see Consistency of rise and going are of prime importance for user confidence and safety. Treads on open riser stairs should overlap not less than 16 mm and have a nosing depth in the range 25 mm to 50 mm to aid visibility.
The length of a landing see Figure 1 should be not less than the clear width of the stair or mm, whichever is the greater. Helical and spiral stairs should have handrails as described in BS Handrails should be provided wherever the total height of the pitch line above the adjacent construction exceeds mm.
Fixed ladders should have equal rises in successive flights wherever practicable. Access points to the head of ladders from platforms and walkways should be protected by self-closing gates see No part of the ladder should project onto the passageway. Except on chimneys, the height of a ladder should not exceed 6 m without an intermediate landing, preferably breaking the line of the ladder. If a user could fall 2 m or more, or come into contact with dangerous equipment, the ladders should be fitted with safety equipment see 6.
Typical fixed ladders are shown in Figure 3. The top rung of a ladder should be replaced at the same level as the floor or platform to which access is provided by either: a a flat supported plate [see Figure 3 d ]; or b industrial type metal flooring complying with BS ; or c additional rungs in a horizontal plane [see Figure 3 e ]. The minimum rise should be mm and the maximum rise should be mm.
Handrails, which may be an extension of the string, should extend upwards at the same angle as the ladder to a height of not less than mm above the upper platform and be securely fastened at their extremities.
Such an extension should not encroach on the clear width of the platform passageway. At platform level the strings should widen out and be bent over and connected to the handrail [see Figure 3]. Above platform level the clear width between strings should be not less than mm and not more than mm.
Landings should not be less than mm square and should have toe plates and handrails around all open sides see Clauses 9 and Clause Cages should be constructed of components robust enough to minimize flexing. The hoops on any safety cage should be placed at equal intervals not more than mm apart. The top hoop should be in line with the top guard rail on the platform. The bottom hoop should be at a height of mm above ground. The sizes of hoops should be as shown in Figure 3 c.
Where maximum enclosure is desirable because of an elevated position or other hazard, one half of the hoop structure may be extended down to near floor level.
In particularly hazardous and exposed situations, mesh panels may be used to cover the ladder cage [see Figure 3 a ]. Typical details of companion way ladders are shown in Figure 4. The front edge of the first step down from platform level should be a minimum of mm from any vertical wall or other obstruction. The top surface of the top tread should be positioned at platform level and there should be no gap between the tread and the platform see Figure 4.
A single handrail should always be provided on both sides of a companion way ladder; the distance between rails, from centre to centre, should be not less than mm. Stanchions supporting handrails should be positioned at right angles to strings. At the top of a companion way ladder, handrails should widen out to a minimum width of mm see Figure 4.
The minimum headroom above the top surface of a platform or walkway should be mm. NOTE It is advisable to fix plates or labels to installations stating that they have been designed following the recommendations of this code.
The statement should include the number of this standard, i. BS , and the design loads. NOTE 2 Concentrated loads should be considered to be applied in the positions which produce the maximum stresses, or, where deflection is the design criterion, in the positions which produce maximum deflection.
When using fixings relying on tension alone, the working load s should be increased by a factor of 1. The designer should consider whether corrosion or fatigue stresses will unduly affect the life of the fixing. Where the use of inclined walkways cannot be avoided, particular attention should be given to ensuring that adequate traction can be obtained by individuals using the walkway. Any gap between the floor and the upstand should be not greater than 15 mm.
On companion way ladders and on stairs bounded by a wall, a single handrail should be fitted. Sharp changes of direction in the vertical plane should be avoided.
To avoid injury or damage, rails should terminate in a returned end, either to the wall or to the kneerail, or return to the newel post. Returned ends should not extend more than mm from the centreline of a newel post. At the foot of the stairs the handrail returned end should extend at least to the point of maximum extension of the string.
Typical details of protective barriers are shown in Figure 5. Access limited to one person 0. Regular two-way pedestrian traffic 0. High density pedestrian traffic; escape routes 0. They should not be placed out-board of the end stanchions and should not be placed between corner stanchions. Joints should not have any sharp edges or projections. Hold-open devices should never be fitted. BS , Quality of timber and workmanship in joinery. BS , Quality of timber.
BS , Quality of workmanship. BS , Steel, plate, sheet and strip. BS , Specification for carbon and carbon manganese plate, sheet and strip. BS , Specification for stainless and heat resisting steel plate, sheet and strip. BS , Specification for grey iron castings. BS , Specification for rolled copper and copper alloys: sheet, strip and foil.
BS , Copper and copper alloys. Forging stock and forgings. Rods and sections other than forging stock. BS , Industrial open type metal flooring and stair treads. BS , Structural use of timber. BS , Code of practice for permissible stress design, materials and workmanship. BS , Stairs, ladders and walkways. BS , Code of practice for the design of straight stairs.
BS , Code of practice for the design of helical and spiral stairs. BS , Code of practice for protective coating of iron and steel structures against corrosion. BS , Fire precautions in the design and construction of buildings. BS , Residential buildings. BS , Code of practice for shops. BS , Code of practice for office buildings.
BS , Building construction — Stairs. BS , Vocabulary. BS , Code of practice for accuracy in building. BS , Code of practice for access for the disabled to buildings.
BS , Glossary of building and civil engineering terms. BS , General. BS , Code of practice for painting of buildings. BS , Code of practice for protective barriers in and about buildings. BS , Structural use of concrete.
BS 5395: Staircase