ACIDOBACTERIUM CAPSULATUM PDF

This blatant knowledge gap stems to a large degree from the difficulties associated with the cultivation of these bacteria by classical means. Given the phylogenetic breadth of the Acidobacteria, which is similar to the metabolically diverse Proteobacteria, it is clear that detailed and functional descriptions of acidobacterial assemblages are necessary. Fortunately, recent advances are providing a glimpse into the ecology of members of the phylum Acidobacteria. These include novel cultivation and enrichment strategies, genomic characterization and analyses of metagenomic DNA from environmental samples. Here, we couple the data from these complementary approaches for a better understanding of their role in the environment, thereby providing some initial insights into the ecology of this important phylum.

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This blatant knowledge gap stems to a large degree from the difficulties associated with the cultivation of these bacteria by classical means.

Given the phylogenetic breadth of the Acidobacteria, which is similar to the metabolically diverse Proteobacteria, it is clear that detailed and functional descriptions of acidobacterial assemblages are necessary. Fortunately, recent advances are providing a glimpse into the ecology of members of the phylum Acidobacteria.

These include novel cultivation and enrichment strategies, genomic characterization and analyses of metagenomic DNA from environmental samples.

Here, we couple the data from these complementary approaches for a better understanding of their role in the environment, thereby providing some initial insights into the ecology of this important phylum. All cultured acidobacterial type species are heterotrophic, and members of subdivisions 1, 3, and 4 appear to be more versatile in carbohydrate utilization.

Genomic and metagenomic data predict a number of ecologically relevant capabilities for some acidobacteria, including the ability to: use of nitrite as N source, respond to soil macro-, micro nutrients and soil acidity, express multiple active transporters, degrade gellan gum and produce exopolysaccharide EPS.

Although these predicted properties allude to a competitive life style in soil, only very few of these prediction shave been confirmed via physiological studies.

The increased availability of genomic and physiological information, coupled to distribution data in field surveys and experiments, should direct future progress in unraveling the ecology of this important but still enigmatic phylum. Keywords: Acidobacteria, carbohydrate metabolism, transporters, nitrogen metabolism, EPS, soil factors Introduction In , the first sequenced genomes of acidobacteria strains became available, providing preliminary genetic insights into the potential physiology and environment functions of several members of this phylum Ward et al.

In these first genomic studies, five aspects of physiological received particular attention: i carbon usage, ii nitrogen assimilation, iii metabolism of iron, iv antimicrobials, and v abundance of transporters. Besides genome sequencing of cultivated isolates, addition information regarding genomic properties of acidobacteria has been derived from metagenomics studies Liles et al.

In this review, we couple the complementary data coming from physiological, genomic and metagenomics studies to seek a better understanding of the role of Acidobacteria in the environment, thereby providing some initial insights into the ecology of this important phylum. We aim to not only give a more complete picture of the current knowledge of Acidobacteria, but also seek to provide a solid base for future experiments geared toward gaining a better understanding of the ecological roles played by members of this phylum.

History and General Information on the Phylum Acidobacteria The introduction of molecular biological strategies into microbial ecology over the past decades has yielded a new perspective on the breadth and vastness of microbial diversity. The phylum of the Acidobacteria is one of the bacterial lineages that has profited most from the cultivation-independent interrogation of environmental samples.

Indeed, in the past two decades, this phylum has grown from being virtually unknown to being recognized as one of the most abundant and diverse on Earth. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Acidobacteria phylum raised from the originally described four to six subdivisions Kuske et al. Currently there are 26 accepted subdivisions Barns et al.

The first recognized strain and species of the phylum Acidobacteria was Acidobacterium capsulatum obtained from an acid mine drainage in Japan Kishimoto and Tano, ; Kishimoto et al. Although the second isolate belonging to this phylum was Holophaga foetida first described in , it was not initially recognized as related to Acidobacteria capsulatum. Instead, it was thought to belong to the phylum Proteobacteria Liesack et al.

A few years later, a closely related bacterium named Geothrix fermentans was isolated Coates et al. Since these isolates were very distantly related to A.

Currently Acidobacteria phylum has 26 subdivisions based on the extremely broad diversity of acidobacterial populations found in uranium-contaminated soils Barns et al. The vast majority of isolates cultivated to date are affiliated with acidobacteria subdivision 1 Class Acidobacteriia. They are all heterotrophic, most species are aerobic or microaerophilic and some species Telmatobacter bradus, Acidobacterium capsulatum are facultative anaerobic bacteria Pankratov et al.

Members of subdivisions 3, 4, 8 currently Class Holophagae , 10, and 23 are heterotrophic as well. Thermotomaculum subdivision 10 and Thermoanaerobaculum subdivision 23 are thermophilic anaerobic bacteria Izumi et al. Chloracidobacterium thermophilum is photoheterotrophic Bryant et al.

Subdivision 8 contains one aerobic Acanthopleuribacter and two strictly anaerobic isolates Holophaga and Geothrix. There are reports of acidobacteria isolates belonging to subdivisions 2 and 6, but they still do not have valid taxonomic names Sait et al. Subdivisions 1 and 3 of the phylum Acidobacteria together with thermophilic Thermoanaerobacter species are capable of biosynthesizing total fatty acids lipid Damste et al. In addition, there are the genome sequences of Koribacter and Solibacter, but there is little information on their physiology.

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Ecology[ edit ] A. Integrated prophages were found in the genome of A. Single protein phylogenies from all the proteins encoded by the genome support the acidobacterial-proteobacterial relationship; moreover A. The genome encodes the ability to degrade a variety of sugars, amino acids, alcohols and metabolic intermediates and also can use complex substrates such as xylan , hemicelluloses , pectin , starch and chitin. These suggest an important role for carbohydrates in nutritional pathways, as well as in desiccation resistance.

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